मिथिलाक पर्यायी नाँवसभ

मिथिलाभाषाक (मैथिलीक) बोलीसभ

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Wednesday 25 May 2011

Mithila = Videha = Vajji / Bajji mahasangh = Tirbhukti = Tirhut ................WHY ??????

Main entrance of Darbhanga fort (दरभंगा किला केर मुख्य प्रवेश द्वारि), Dharbhanga, Mithila,  Bihar , India

        की थिक मिथिला के छथि मैथिल ? हम कहैत छी ओरहि सँ।
        मिथिलावासी  सुनह  पिहानी हम  कहैत  छी  तोरहि   सँ ।।   
                                                                                              - श्री रविन्द्रनाथ ठाकुर

"VIDEHA" (विदेह) was the name of the kingdome established by "NIMI-VIDEHA" or "NIMI-JANAKA" (निमि विदेह / निमि जनक) . He was the pioneer of this kingdome & the first king of VIDEHA.

Later on his son "MITHI-JANAKA" (मिथि जनक) became the second emperror & after him, his kingdom was named as "MITHILĀ" (मिथिला). In fact MITHI-JANAKA has established a town / city named "MITHILĀPURI / MITHILĀ NAGARI" (मिथिलापुरी / मिथिला नगरी) as the capital of "VIDEHA KINGDOME". Later the term "MITHILĀ" has expanded & became synonymous of the entire "VIDEHA KINGDOME". And the capital town "MITHILĀPURI / MITHILĀ NAGARI" was replaced by the name "JANAKPURI / JANAKPUR" (जनकपुरी / जनकपुर) .

Janaki temple (जानकी मन्दिर) - Janakpur Dham - Dhanusha - Mithila - Nepal.

Other important JANAKS were SIRDHWAJA JANAKA (सिरध्वज जनक, father of goddess SITA ; during the period of RAMAYANA) , KRITI JANAKA (कृति जनक) ,  KIRTI JANAK (कीर्त्ति जनक), BAHULĀSHWA JANAKA (बहुलाश्व जनक ; during the period of MAHĀBHĀRATA ) & KARĀLA JANAKA (कराल जनक). KARĀLA JANAKA was the last emperror of this dynesty, who had different view-points than the other Janakas. Hence most of then texts don’t add the suffix Janaka with his name & quote as “KARĀLA” (कराल ) only.

Birthplace of Goddess sita (Ramayana Epic) (जानकी जन्मभूमि ; उर्विजा कुण्ड), Janaki mandir, Punaura dham, Sitamadhi / sitamarhi, Mithila,  Bihar, India

After The fall of Janaka dynesty , Mithila was fragmented in small  provinces ruled by locally elected kings. This was a type of democracy.  Although these “FRAGMENT PROVINCES” were ruled by different kings but due to cold war with Magadh (मगध) they formed a strong UNION / SANGHA (just like former USSR, USA, Union Republic Of India or Europian Union etc).  They were united over military , economic & cultural levels (सैन्य-सामरिक, आर्थिक व सांस्कृतिक स्तर).  This union was named as “VAJJI / BAJJI MAHASANGHA/ MAHAJANAPADA” (वज्जि/बज्जि महासंघ/महाजनपद). This was ever first phenomenon of “DEMOCRACY / REPUBLIC” (प्रजातण्त्र / जनतण्त्र / गणतण्त्र) all over the world.

VAJJI MAHĀJANPADA / MAHĀSANGHA (वज्जि महासंघ/महाजनपद) was initially formed by these MAITHIL SMALL PROVINCES (fragments of Mithila). Later some NON-MAITHIL SMALL PROVINCES (of NEPĀL / नेपाल ) also joined this union / mahasangha.

World peace pagoda (विश्व शांति स्तुप), Vaishali , Mithila, Bihar , India

 “VAISHĀLI”  (वैशाली) was one of these “fragment provinces of MITHILĀ”.  There was a highway from “LUMBINI / LICHCHHVI” (लुम्बिनी / लिच्छवी) to  VAISHALI which was passing through ‘KUSHINAGAR”(कुशीनगर),” SHRĀVASTI” (श्रावस्ति / श्रावस्ती) etc. Since  “GAUTAM BUDDHA / MAHATMĀ BUDDHA” (गौतम बुद्ध / महात्मा बुद्ध) had travelled through this highway hence Vaishali is more quoted in buddhistha texts. Moreover VAISHĀLI was the gateway of VAJJI MAHĀSANGHA & via this only Magadh emperror “AJĀTSHATRU” (अजातशत्रु) invaded into VAJJI. And this was a cause which made more quotations for Vashali than the other constituent provinces of Vajji Mahajanapada.

Ruins of a Buddhistha Stupa / pagoda (वैशालीक बौद्ध स्तूपक भग्नावशेष), Basadh/ Basarh, Vaishali, Mithila, Bihar, India

In the era of king "HARSHAVARDHANA" (हर्षवर्धन) this region was termed as "TIRBHUKTI" (तिरभुक्ति / तीरभुक्ति) i.e. the province / state which lies between the river-banks, because mithila is surrounded by rivers by 3 sides (namely the gangase,gandaka & koshi with their tributaries).

"TIRHUT" (तिरहुत) is the "TADBHAVA" (तद्भव) Maithili form of the "TATSAMA" (तत्सम) word TIRBHUKTI (तिरभुक्ति / तीरभुक्ति).

Hence all the above FIVE NAMES are synonymous & represent the same geographical  landscape / area / region - not the the different areas / regions. Whoever says that they are different , is lying &  making us fool & certainly trying to break us. Please be alert !!!  ………………………….. And if all the above names are synonymous then how the languages MAITHILI, VAJJIKĀ, BAJJIKĀ & TIRHUTIYĀ may be different?  In fact these are the SYNONYMS OF SAME LANGUAGE “MITHILĀ – BHĀSHĀ” (मिथिला - भाषा).

Ruins of Vikramshila university (विक्रमशिला विश्वविद्यालयक भग्नावशेष)  , Bhagalpur , Mithila-Anga , Bihar, India

Moreover ANGA PRADESH / CHAMPA (अंग प्रदेश / चम्पा) historically never remained the part of HISTORICAL MITHILA KINGDOME. In fact this small region was the COLONIAL PROVINCE (उपनिवेश)  of KURU / KAURAVAS” (कुरु / कौरव)  that was allocated to KARNA” (कर्ण)  by his friend DURYODHANA” (दुर्योधन). It was influenced by MAGADHA time to time. During PAL DYNESTY (पाल राजवंश), it has the glorious history of having VIKRAMSHILA UNIVERSITY” (विक्रमशिला विश्वविद्यालय). Even so, this region has the close cultural as well as linguistic connection with MITHILA. CHAUTHA-CHANDRA / CHAURCHAN (चौठ-चन्द्र / चौरचन) is a unique festival of Mithila is also celebrated in this region, Some people regard “ANGIKĀ” (अंगिका) as a SEPARATE LANGUAGE while some regard as a DIALECT OF HINDI. If this is a dialect then certainly NOT OF HINDI but OF MAITHILI as per unbiased linguistic grounds. Sir GEORGE ABRAHAM GRIERSON has named it as  CHHIKĀ-CHHIKI MAITHILI (छिका-छिकी मैथिली) & regarded as a DIALECT OF MAITHILI.

The great Maithili poet VIDYAPATI  (Vidyapati Thakur) , (मैथिली - कोकिल महाकवि विद्यापति ठाकुर) , having several honourary names e.g. ABHINAVA JAYADEVA (अभिनव जयदेव) , MAITHILI KOKILA (मैथिली कोकिल)  , KAVISHEKHARA (कविशेखर) etc.......Inspirational figure for  BHANUSIMHER PADAVALI (भानुसिंहेर पदावली) of  GURUDEVA RAVINDRANATH TAGORE  (गुरुदेव रविन्द्रनाथ टैगोर) .

In fact merely such historical division of MITHILĀ & ANGA on the ground of transient political lines may not be a parameter for a separate / different language, otherwise the modern MAHĀRĀSTRA may have four different languages i.e. languages of Vidarbha, Marathwada, Khandesha, Paschima Maharastra etc.

Writing of MAITHILI in both DEVANAGARI & MITHILAKSHARA / TIRHUTA / VAIDEHI SCRIPTS (मैथिली : देवनागरी व मिथिलाक्षर / तिरहुता / वैदेही लिपि मे ) . The synonyms of  Mithilakshara is self explanatory  for the speaking regions.

So the language / mother tongue of the above mentioned regions of BIHAR (INDIA) & NEPAL is same i.e. MITHILĀ - BHĀSHĀ / MAITHILI (मिथिला – भाषा / मैथिली). 

During British rulings (in 1875), they divided the entireTIRHUT / MITHILĀ into TWO DIVISIONS namely MUZAFFARPUR & DARBHANGA as per their DIVIDE & RULE POLICY. At that time DARBHANGA division was constituted by modern Darbhanga, Madhubani, Samastipur, Saharsa, Supaul, Madhepura, Purnea & all the other remaining districts of EASTERN MITHILĀ. And then MUZAFFARPUR division was constituted by Muzaffarpur, Vaishali, Sitamadhi / Sitamarhi, both Champarans i.e the WESTERN MITHILĀ.  

Sir George Abraham Grierson,  (born Jan. 7, 1851, Glenageary, County Dublin, Ire.—died March 9, 1941, Camberley, Surrey, Eng.), Irish linguistic language scholar and civil servant who conducted the Linguistic Survey of India (1898–1928), obtaining information on 364 languages and dialects.
While a student of mathematics at Trinity College, Dublin, Grierson took prizes in Sanskrit and Hindi.

At that time the BRITISH POLICY MAKERS had sawn the seeds of division that the language of DARBHANGA is MAITHILI & that of TIRHUT is TIRHUTIYĀ / BAJJIKĀ. Meanwhile a noble, unbiased linguist Sir GEORGE ABRAHAM GREARSON has recognised that MAITHILI is a separate, living language which has SEVERAL DILECTS including so called BAJJIKĀ & CHHIKA - CHHIKI MAITHILI (ANGIKĀ). Initially Sir G.A.Grearson was a little bit confused & had placed Maithili into the BIHARI language. But, soon he realised that it was a BLUNDER MISTAKE to place MAITHILI under BIHARI. He has confessed such facts during the survey of BANGLA, ORIYA & ASAMESE languages and mentioned that MAITHILI IS A SEPARATE LIVING LANGUAGE.

Later, even after independence a few peoples used to MISGUIDE the MAITHILS narrating the above mentioned DIVIDE & RULE POLICY . They even propagated this policy more saying that ANGA was a separate entity in history, hence their language can't be MAITHILI . 

Formation of DARBHANGA, TIRHUT , BHAGALPUR etc. COMMISSIONARIES has also added fuel to this DIVIDE & RULE POLICY . Peoples have been wrongly taught that MAITHILI is the MOTHER TONGUE of only a few districts which fall under DARBHANGA COMMISSIONARY  & that of TIRHUT COMMISSIONARY is TIRHUTIYA / BAJJIKA & that of BHAGALPUR COMMISSIONARY is ANGIKA / ANGICA. Here the term TIRHUT is forcibly restricted for only a few districts rather than the WHOLE MITHILĀ. Similarly, then BHAGALPUR COMMISSIONARY consists of BEGUSARAI, KHAGARIA, BHAGALPUR, BANKA & JAMUI etc. districts & they are taught (by some unknown forces) that their MOTHER TONGUE is ANGIKA instead of MAITHILI because ANGA was a different entity at the time of MAHABHARATA.

I am going to ask them that if mother tongue of so called ANGA & MITHILĀ can't be same merely because they were separate entities in history then how the language of BHOJPUR & a few people from MAURITIUS may be same? If the dilects from Darbhanga , Champaran, Vaishali, Purnea , Araria, Khagaria, Begusarai, Bhagalpur & other regions differ somewhat, then so what ? - this is a characteristic of a living language . Even dilects from Chhapra, Siwan, Arrah , Sasaram & Ballia etc. differs considerably - then how they claim for the same language ?

The famous MITHILA  PAINTING (Artist - ? ),  (मिथिला चित्रकारी / चित्रकला; चित्रकार - ?) . 

In fact this paintings depicts an strong unique cultural link between MITHILA & ANGA regions. This painting is characteristically carved / drawn / made by the females of these rgions. 

Also called MADHUBANI PAINTING / ART because the U.S. research scholar Ms JENNIFER WILLIAMS  first noticed this painting / art at MADHUBANI & quoted for rest of the world as MADHUBANI PAINTINGS (मधुबनी चित्रकारी / चित्रकला). But this name is erroneous because this painting is characteristic of the ENTIRE MITHILA (either of INDIA or NEPAL) including the so called ANGA.

So, I request to all MAITHILS (irrespective of age, sex, cast, religion, districts, regions) to understand the facts and reply the so called destructive forces peacefully by unity. Please don't be misguided by any such forces. Rest depends upon you - after all it is your freedom  to accept the fact or being misguided.

           आउ आइ हम सभ हिलि मिलि कऽ माँक उतारी आरती ।
          जय जय मिथिला, जयति मैथिली, जय भारत, जय भारती ।। 
                                   - श्री जगदीश चन्द्र ठाकुर "अनिल"         

                          ।। इति शुभम् ।।


  1. j nai baje maithili okar kaan pakair k ainthli.

  2. पढ़ि लीखि कऽ जे नहि बजैछ हा मातृभाषा मैथिली ।
    मोन ह्वैछ एहिना कपूतक, कान दुहु खेंचि ली ।।
    छाउड़ लेपि झट दऽ झिटुकी सँ जीह ओकर खेंचि ली ।
    पर हाय ई अधिकार हमरा ने देलनि "मैथिली" ।।
    - श्री (स्व॰) सीताराम झा

  3. हरिमोहनजी ब्लॉक पढ‍़बाक लेल व अपन मोनक बात कहबाक लेल बहुत बहुत धन्यवाद ।

  4. ललनजी ब्लॉक पढ‍़बाक लेल व अपन मोनक बात कहबाक लेल बहुत बहुत धन्यवाद । कोनहु सुझाव वा एहि संबन्धित जानकारी अहाँ लग होअए तऽ सेहो पठाउ ।

  5. अनुशरण कएनिहार/रि लोकनि केँ सेहो सादर धन्यवाद । सुझाव व जानकारी आमण्त्रित अछि ।

  6. bahut besh.. mon gadgad bha gel..1ta community bana ka mitihila and maithili ke vikash ke lel apan MP,MLA sab sa mang kel je..
    aa apan disan padhai likhai aa navka navka niyam jena RTI sab ke bare me jagrukta seho felaival kichh kadam uthail jebak chhahi..
    Jai Maithili.
    Jai Mithila.
    Jai Hind.
    Jai Bharat.

  7. bahut neek article ....
    Full History in Nut-shell

  8. Sir, if possible try to post the photos with brief information about Goutam Kund (tapobhumi of Maharshi Goutam ), Kapileshwar (Tapobhumiof Maharshi Kapil ),Mahishi ( birth place of MandanaMishra ),Birth place of Mahakavi Kalidas,Damouli (Birth place of Maharshi Vyas ),Panch pokhari( birth place of Brahmarshi Vishwamitra ),....etc.I am not from Mithilanchal but Mithilanchal is a holy place for me.Yajnavalkya ,Kanva, Madhyandina,Vishwamitra,Ashtavakra,Vyas,Goutam,Kanad,Kapil, Kumarilabhatta, MandanaMishra, Ubhayabharati,........are from this place.i appreciate your effort in preserving Mithila culture.

    1. Sir,

      First of all, many mnay thanks to YOU.

      Thanks for ypor interest in MITHILA, interest in the CULTURAL HISTORY OF MITHILA & thanks for your PRECIOUS COMMENT.

      Gradually, when I will make a visit to the above mentioned places, I will post the concerning photographs on this blog.

  9. If possible try to post the photos and brief information about these places. Bhattapur--Gangouli (Dist Darbhanga )The place of Kumaril Bhatta,Andhra Thadi ( Madhubani )The place of Vachaspati Mishra,Sarasub Pahi ( Madhubani ) The place of AyachiMishra,Shingia ( Madhubani ) Tapobhumi of Maharshi Shrungi.....etc

    1. Respected Mujumdar Sir,

      I am amazed as well as pleased to see your interest in these historical places of MITHILA REGION. Your comments/suggestions are PRECIOUS for me & act like BOOSTER DOSES FOR MY WORKS in this field.

    2. Thanks for suggestions. During summer vacation I will try to gather information & pics. of these historical places. And will post accordingly on my blog.